CPCB Guidelines For Environmental Management of Dairy Farms and Gaushalas

To obtain the authorization to establish Dairy farms and Gaushalas CPCB has implemented several guidelines which are obligatory to follow. Let's have a look at the first step towards obtaining the authorization for Dairy farms and Gaushalas.

In case of any query or authorization related concern - we - JR Complaince, Delhi based team of top-notch consultants are the right choice. Contact us for expert and reliable services.

Dairy Farms and Gaushalas - places where bovine animals lives, though, the major difference lies in the fact that Dairy farms produces milk, while Gaushalas provides shelter to the bovine animals.

Since 1998, India has been holding first position among milk producing nations. That implies, India has the largest bovine population in the world. 

Moreover, dairy is the second largest source of secondary income for millions of rural families, that means, it has been playing a necessary role in generating employment and income opportunities. 

However, being one of the flourishing or growing industries - Dairy farms and Gaushalas has been a major contributor in pollution generation. That’s why, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has implemented guidelines which are obligatory to be followed by the Dairy farm and Gaushala owners. 

It can not be avoided that, to prevent environment CPCB is constantly framing new guidelines, that's why you need an expert assistance to implement its guidelines, including obtaining the authorization from the officials.

We - JR Compliance have an integrated approach to meet all your requirements while being in a direct contact with officials as we care about our customers satisfaction, however, above all, we care about our environment.

Before moving to the guidelines, let’s start with its categorization - 

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How Dairy Farms and Gaushalas Have Been Categorized?

As per the latest rules, the number of dairy farms or gaushalas established in urban, pre-urban, and rural areas have been categorized on the basis of number of bovine it comprise - 

Categorization Dairy Farms

As per the inventory received by the Pollution Control Board (PCCs) or State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs), it has been analyzed that-

  • 60% to 70% of dairy farms include upto 25 animals.
  • 15% to 20% of dairy farms have 100 animals.
  • 15% to 20% of dairy farms have over 100 animals

 

That has been respectively categorized as small, medium, and large dairy farms. Furthermore, for proper categorization of the dairy farms depending on the urban, pre-urban, and rural areas - it has been analyzed that 5% to 10% of dairy farms are established in urban areas, while pre-urban areas also hold the similar percentage of dairy farms as urban areas. 

On the contrary, rural areas possess the highest number of dairy farms, that is 80% to 90%.

Categorization of Gaushalas

Likewise, as per PCCs or SPCBs it has been observed that -

  • 15% to 20% of Gaushalas contain upto 100 animals.
  • 80% to 85% of Gaushalas possesses above 100 animals.

 

Thus, the Gushalas have been categorized as small, medium, and larger on the basis of number of animals it contains that are up upto 100, 1,000 animals, and over 1,000 animals respectively. 

Further, it has been observed that the Gaushalas in urban areas holds the 50% to 55% percentage, while the percentage of Gaushalas in pre-urban areas is the lowest, i.e., 5% to 10% and its percentage in rural areas are 35% to 45%.

Which Authorization is Required For Dairy Farms & Gaushalas?

Dairy farms and Gaushalas are required to obtain Consent to Establish and Consent to Operate from State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) or Pollution Committee.

SPCBs/PCCs must issue a public notice for Dairy farms & Gaushalas to obtain consent to establish and consent to operate under Water Act, 1974 and Air Act, 1981 according to the categorization of industries in Orange and Green Category, respectively.

To ensure an appropriate disposal of bovine dune and wastewater, concerned SPCBs/PCCs/local bodies/corporations must monitor dairy farms and gaushalas on regular basis.

For registration of Dairy farms and Gaushalas (as prescribed by municipal laws), local bodies or municipal corporations must publish a notice in newspapers and on their website. Preferably, the registration should be done online and the same might be displayed at the websites.

However, obtaining an authorization could be tedious for a layman, because it requires great deal of efforts.

That's why we have a solution to each concern in respect to authorization. Be it documentation, implementation of guidelines, coordinating with officials, or even guide you in regard to each aspect of the authorization - we have got you covered.

What Are the Environmental Issues in Dairy Farms and Gaushalas?

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Disposal of dung and urinal waste wastewater is one of the fundamental environmental issues in Dairy farms and Gaushalas.

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Improper handling and disposal of dung wastewater of Dairy farms and Gaushalas are the reason for water pollution and odour nuisance. 

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Feed residue, bovine dung, and more creates solid waste.

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Water pollution due to discharge of untreated wastewater (generated from floor cleaning, bathing of animals, urine, etc)  in the drain.

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Bovine dung releases gases or compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide, and more in the atmosphere which creates odour nuisance.

Guidelines For Waste Management in Dairy Farms

These guidelines would be applicable to the establishment discharging their waste in the environment -

Guidelines For Dairy Farms Established in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas

1. Solid Waste Management
  • The bovine dung should be collected regularly from the floor to keep the floor clean. Also, the area nearby or surrounding areas should be cleaned at regular intervals to prevent odour.
  • For the utilization of the solid waste, it must be adequately stored.
  • Premises and its surrounding areas must be appropriately disinfected and sanitized.
  • To prevent clogging, avoid washing the feed residue, dung, and more. Moreover, Local bodies or corporations or SPCBs must ensure that untreated waste should not be discharged out the premises.
  • Small Dairy farms can utilize the dung to manufacture dung wood or dung cake or composting or vermicomposting, or a combination of both for solid waste’s utilization or disposal.
  • Medium and large Dairy farms could adopt a combination of disposal or utilization methods like dung wood manufacturing or biogas generation. 
  • In case of clusters, biogas or compressed biogas could be done for the utilization or disposal of solid waste accompanied by the entrepreneurs or local dairy farmers. 
  • Large Dairy farms can establish biogas or compressed biogas production facilities in association with entrepreneurs or individually. 
  • Local bodies or corporations or SPCBs must facilitate the Dairy farmers or NGOs or entrepreneurs in establishing individual or combined utilization facilities.
  • Vaccines, vails, medicines, syringes, and any other domestic hazardous waste which could be used needs to be disposed of according to the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016. However, in case self-owned medical facilities are available, then it should be disposed of according to the provisions of Bio-medical Waste Management, 2016.
2. Wastewater Management
  • To bathe the bovines and for other activities, water should be judiciously used (100 litres/day/bovine).
  • A proper wastewater management system should be followed as prescribed by the PCCs or SPCBs. 
  • For appropriate disposal, treatment, and handling of the wastewater, proper infrastructure must be provided. While in case of cluster, an individual or combined treatment facility must be maintained. 
  • Local bodies or corporations or SPCBs must provide the facilities to entrepreneurs or Dairy farmers or NGOs to establish individual or combined treatment facilities. 
  •  The shed of the floor must be paved (it prevents water from passing through) with the wastewater collection system. Also, for the safety of the animals, the floor of the shed must not be slippery. 
3. Air Quality Management
  • To prevent humidity, build up gases (carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and more) and to dissipate heat, animal housing must be properly ventilated. 
  • To create a barrier against odour or noise due to the animals, plant the trees or green belts wherever possible. 
  • Good housekeeping practices must be followed such as conditions of proper sanitation, protecting the bovine dung from unrequired pests or insects to prevent or lessen the odour. 
  • It is suggested that to follow the ration advisory for changing or improving the quality and storage of feed or forage or supplements from an agricultural institution or departments like Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Animal Husbandry Department, and more. 
  • Each animal must be provided with appropriate standing, loafing, movement, feeding, watering, and ventilation. 
4. Siting Policy

Below-mentioned siting practices apply to the new establishment, however, existing Dairy farms should follow the adequate environmental friendly practises as mentioned in guidelines. 

  • Should be established in permissible areas and should be established at least 100 meters away from the health care centers or facilities, residential dwellings, and schools to prevent odour. 
  • Must be established 200 meters away from the watercourses like lake, canals, and other watercourses. 
  • Should be established away from the river floodplain areas and shallow ground water areas. 
  • There must be 5 meters of distance between inter-se establishments and each establishment is required to provide 2.5 meters from each side for adequate ventilation and plantation of green belt. 

Guidelines For Dairy Farms Established in Rural Areas

1. Solid Waste Management
  • For the proper utilization of dung, dung should be appropriately collected and stored. Also, it could be used as a field compost or to make dung wood or vermi-compost. Moreover, in the case of a cluster, biogas production can be done to use it as a source of energy.
  • To prevent clogging, dung or fodder residue must not be washed in the drain, including cleaning the surrounding to minimize the odour.
  • According to the provisions of Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 must be followed to appropriate disposal of hazardous waste like syringe, medicines, etc.
2. Wastewater Management
  • The use of water should be done judiciously (100 litres/day/bovine).
  • Wastewater must be treated according to the standards of the PCCs or SPCBs.
  • The floor of the shed should be adequately paved and should have a proper system for collection or utilization of wastewater. Also, to ensure the safety of the animals, the floor must not be slippery. 
3. Air Quality Management
  • Animal housing must be properly ventilated to prevent head, dissipation, and prevent gas buildup.
  • Good housekeeping conditions must be maintained to prevent odour issues. 
  • Proper spacing must be available for feeding, watering, resting, ventilation, and more of animals. 
  • A ration advisory must be obtained from the agricultural institutes or departments for improving or changing the quality or dosage feed or forage or supplements.
  • To prevent odour and to minimize the noise created by animals, trees or green belts must be planted.
4. Siting Policy
  • Should be established 5 meters away from hospitals or schools or residential dwellings. 
  • Must be established at least 100 meters away from major drinking water sources, including rain flood areas, and shallow groundwater areas.
  • Two establishments must be situated at least 5 meters away from each other, including 2.5 meters away from each side for the plantation of greenbelts.

Guidelines For Gaushalas

1. Solid Waste Management

1. Solid Waste Management
  • The dung from the floor must be collected regularly to prevent or minimize the odour nuisance. 
  • Premises and its surroundings must be properly disinfected and sanitized. 
  • To avoid clogging, dung and fodder residue should be washed in the drains.
  • Local bodies or corporations or SPCBs should make sure that untreated waste is not discharged in the drains.
  • For manufacturing of dung wood or biogas generation or vermicomposting dung waste must be properly utilized. Also, small and medium Gaushalas can adopt any combination of utilization methods, while large Gaushalas can establish a biogas generation facility individually or in association. 
  • According to the provisions of “Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016, vaccines, vails, syringes, and any other domestic hazardous waste must be properly disposed of. However if you have your own medical facilities, they are required to follow the provisions issued under Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016 to dispose of domestic hazardous waste.
2. Wastewater Management
  • Water must be judiciously used to bathe the animals and other activities (50 litres/day/bovine).
  • Wastewater should be appropriately treated as per the provisions of SPCBs or PCCs or if used for medical purposes. 
  • A proper infrastructure must be maintained for appropriate handling, treatment, and disposal of waste. Moreover, local bodies or corporations or SPCBs provide facilities to Gaushalas owners to establish treatment facilities. 
  • Shed flooring should be paved with a wastewater collection system. Moreover, for the animal’s safety, the floor should not be slippery.
3. Air Quality Management
  • Animal housing should be adequately ventilated to prevent gas built-up, dissipate heat, and eliminate humidity. 
  • Plant the trees or green belts wherever possible to prevent foul smell and noise created by animals.
  • Good housekeeping practises must be followed to reduce odour such as maintaining adequate sanitary conditions.
  • A ration advisory must be obtained with the motive to improve or modify quality and dosage of feed or forage or supplements from an agricultural institute or department such as NDRI, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, etc.
  • For each animal proper standing, resting, loafing, movement, feeding, resting, watering, and ventilation space should be available.
4. Siting Policy

Siting policy applies to the new establishment. While existing Gaushalas are required to follow the environmental friendly practices as prescribed by the Guidelines. 

  • Must be established at least 100 meters from residential dwellings or schools or hospitals to prevent odour problems. Also, it should be away from the major drinking water resources.
  • Should be established away from the river floodplain areas and shallow groundwater areas.
  • For appropriate ventilation, two establishments must be established at least 5 meters away from each other. It should have 2.5 meters space on each side for the plantation of green belt. 

Conclusion

CPCB is responsible for forming the guidelines, but it is also focusing on the regulatory or monitoring the implementation of the established guidelines. Moreover, only following the obligatory guidelines is not enough, but you are also required to complete the registration. 

Well, for that, you can contact us a Delhi based award winning compliance service provider - that’s JR Compliance. We have a team of experts abreast with all the guidelines issued by the CPCB because we believe that if we miss an information, it could be a loss of our clients.


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